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The town was ruled until 1248 by the counts of Andechs-Merania.
After they died out in 1260 the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern took over the inheritance.
Initially, however, their residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach.
The town of Bayreuth developed slowly and was affected time and again by disasters.
1742 saw the founding of the Frederick Academy, which became a university in 1743, but was moved that same year to Erlangen after serious riots because of the adverse reaction of the population.
The university has remained there to the present today.
As early as 1361 Emperor Charles IV had conferred on Burgrave Frederick V the right to mint coins for the towns of Bayreuth and Kulmbach. In February 1430, the Hussites devastated Bayreuth and the town hall and churches were razed.
To commemorate this feat, he had the Margrave Fountain built as a monument on which he is depicted as the victor of the Turks; it now stands outside the New Palace (Neues Schloss).
While Bayreuth was previously (1199) referred to as a villa (village), the term civitas ("town") appeared for the first time in a document published in 1231.
One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was awarded its town charter between 12.
In 1721 the town council acquired the palace of Baroness Sponheim (today's Old Town Hall or Altes Rathaus) as a replacement for the town hall built in 1440 in the middle of the market place and destroyed by fire.
In 1735 a nursing home, the so-called Gravenreuth Stift, was founded by a private foundation in St. The cost of the building exceeded the funds of the foundation, but Margrave Frederick came to their aid.
In 1705 he founded the Order of Sincerity (Ordre de la Sincérité), which was renamed in 1734 to the Order of the Red Eagle and had the monastery church built, which was completed in 1711.